Jul 18, 2024  
2023-2024 Course Catalog 
2023-2024 Course Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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CJS 2081 - Police and the Community

Credits: 3
Hours/Week: Lecture 3 Lab None
Course Description: This course provides a practical overview of key issues, questions, and concepts related to police interaction with communities. Topic areas include ethics, leadership, diversity, problem solving, and communication. There is a 25-hour service-learning requirement in both CJS 2081 and CJS 2085   for a total of 50 hours. Students are advised not to enroll in both courses during the same semester.
MnTC Goals

Prerequisite(s): None
Corequisite(s): None
Recommendation: Course placement into college-level English and Reading OR completion of ENGL 0950  with a grade of C or higher OR completion of RDNG 0940  with a grade of C or higher and qualifying English Placement Exam OR completion of RDNG 0950  with a grade of C or higher and ENGL 0090  with a grade of C or higher OR completion of ESOL 0051  with a grade of C or higher and ESOL 0052  with a grade of C or higher.


Major Content

  1. Introduction to the historical development of policing in society
  2. Development of American police in relation to local and national security
  3. Professional reports and influence of police research
  4. Role of psychological and job testing
  5. Knowledge of field training officer (FTO)  training aspects
  6. Police discretionary behavior
  7. Police hierarchy and career development
  8. Principles of good policing
  9. Best practices in police policy
  10. Corruption and abuse of power
  11. Fostering integrity in American policing
  12. Civic and ethical responsibility and evaluation citizens’ complaints
  13. Ethnic, racial, and female presence on the force
  14. Community policing and crime prevention
  15. Deadly force and hot pursuit driving, legal standards of liability
  16. Coping with occupational stress and agendas for change in American policing
  17. Police role in court and correctional process 
  18. Diversity and respect in community collaboration and problem-solving
  19. Application of Constitutional amendments and State statutes

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this course students will be able to:

  1. describe how perception, sympathy, empathy, compassion and respect affect peace officer communication.(1.1.1.)
  2. discuss barriers to clear communication, e.g. language, stress, bias, lack of common cultural understanding. (1.1.2.)
  3. use and interpret verbal and non-verbal cues to enhance interpersonal communications. (1.1.3.)
  4. describe and demonstrate active listening skills including paraphrasing, reflecting meaning, and summarizing understanding to obtain and clarify information.(1.1.4.)
  5. demonstrate reading comprehension skills necessary in law enforcement including: the ability to differentiate between facts, opinions and propaganda, understanding sequencing of events, and recognizing cause and effect.(1.1.5.)
  6. discuss the inter-relationship between core beliefs, integrity and ethical reasoning.(1.2.1.)
  7. identify ethical issues in a variety of law enforcement related situations and apply ethical reasoning to decision making processes.(1.2.2.)
  8. evaluate and apply strategies for responding to unethical or illegal actions that may arise within law enforcement and public safety. (1.2.3.)
  9. model behaviors that demonstrate commitment to ethical and professional behavior.(1.2.4.)
  10. discuss discretion and how it differs from selective enforcement.(1.2.5.)
  11. identify some of the causes and ramifications of public distrust of law enforcement and strategies to enhance the public trust.(1.2.6.)
  12. discuss ethical and responsible use of computers and databases by law enforcement.(1.2.7.)
  13. define and describe models of the conscious processes of critical thinking, logical reasoning and problem solving.(1.3.1.)
  14. use structured problem-solving methods to develop creative and innovative solutions to a variety of problems.(1.3.2.)
  15. applying reason and evidence to formulate logical inferences and draw logical conclusions.(1.3.3.)
  16. analyze and evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems using basic forms of logic and techniques designed to encourage sound reasoning.(1.3.4.)
  17. use critical thinking, logical reasoning and problem solving strategies to formulate ideas, make proposals and suggest solutions a variety of law enforcement related problems or concerns (Minn. Stat. 626.8455).(1.3.5.)
  18. apply critical thinking strategies during team discussions.(1.3.6.)
  19. describe decision-making processes and models. (1.4.1.)
  20. define the term discretion and discuss when and why peace officers use their best judgment in the administration of justice and when discretion is not allowed.(1.4.2.)
  21. discuss factors that influence police officer use of discretion.(1.4.3.)
  22. based on written scenarios involving law enforcement:
    1. describe decisions officers must make,
    2. suggest appropriate actions, and
    3. defend those decisions and actions.(1.4.4.)
  23. practice making decisions in real time based on scenarios of peace officers situations.(1.4.5.)
  24. discuss how and why the police function is much broader than law enforcement and why reliance on criminal law enforcement to solve problems is not always the best course of action.(1.5.1)
  25. explain philosophies and concepts of community policing.(1.5.2.)
  26. discuss how community partnerships with law enforcement foster unity and cooperation and how community alienation may lead to higher risk to officers.(1.5.3.)
  27. identify community policing strategies that build rapport, reduce fear, and foster community trust in law enforcement.(1.5.4.)
  28. identify techniques for organizing community members so that they are involved and trained in community policing activities, relating to diverse communities, and relating to individuals with physical or mental limitations (Minn. Stat. 626.8455, Subd. 1, 2-4).(1.5.5.)
  29. identify methods and strategies used by law enforcement to promote crime reduction and loss prevention in a community.(1.5.6.)
  30. explain how collaboration with each of the following groups may reduce crime: local citizens, community businesses, and service agencies, i.e., crisis intervention teams, social services, school personnel, and community youth groups.(1.5.7.)
  31. explain how law enforcement management of status offenses and local ordinance violations can positively impact a community.(1.5.8.)
  32. describe and give examples of proactive policing versus responsive policing.(1.5.9.)
  33. describe problem oriented or problem targeting policing strategies.(1.5.10.)
  34. explain how various patrol strategies impact crime, community security and community perceptions of law enforcement.(1.5.11.)
  35. explain how intolerance, prejudice, and stereotyping impact human behavior.(1.6.1.)
  36. discuss the risks and problems associated with intolerance, insensitivity, partiality, and marginalizing can affect just application of the law and influence officer & community safety.(1.6.2.)
  37. discuss how recognizing and valuing diversity, cultural differences, and varied perspectives promotes community unity, facilitates information gathering, and contributes to officer safety.(1.6.4.)
  38. discuss ways officers can promote positive relationships with community members of varying races, ethnicities, national origins, immigration statuses, genders, ages, economic classes, disabilities, and/or sexual orientations (Minn. Stat. 626.8455).(1.6.5.)
  39. discuss how family dynamics and communication methods, both verbal and non-verbal, vary between cultures and how recognition of these variances can benefit officers and communities.(1.6.6.)
  40. discuss culturally responsive approaches to dealing with victims and perpetrators of violence. (Minn. Stat. 626.8451., Subp. 1.a. (4))(1.6.7.)
  41. research and discuss the difference between equity and equality and the relationship between crime and being underprivileged.(1.6.8.)
  42. discuss the diverse groups that make-up Minnesota’s communities and some of the traits unique to communities that could impact law enforcement response.(1.6.9.)
  43. describe characteristics of professional behavior and the Minnesota Standards of Conduct for licensing Minnesota peace officers.(1.7.1.)
  44. describe the repercussions for a finding of a violation of the State’s peace officer standards of conduct.(1.7.2.)
  45. identify the value of cooperation and collaboration in solving problems.(1.7.3.)
  46. demonstrate behaviors associated with effectively working as part of a team to solve law enforcement related problems and issues. (1.7.4)
  47. employ teamwork skills to foster positive working relationships, accomplish team goals and effectively utilize team member talents. (1.7.5)
  48. demonstrate skills which promote consensus building, show respect for the opinion of others, and encourage cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution. (1.7.6.)
  49. describe traits of and skills for effective leadership including compassion, courage, service, listening, coaching, mission focus, and team development.(1.7.7.)
  50. demonstrate ethical leadership in the accomplishment of goals and objectives. (1.7.8.)
  51. identify the physiological, psychological and emotional effects of stress.(1.8.2.)
  52. explain the importance of balancing peace officer roles and responsibilities and other life roles, interests and responsibilities.(1.8.8.)
  53. explain why physical fitness attributes including cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, agility, strength, speed, and endurance are important to peace officer health, well-being and competence.(1.8.9.)
  54. explain the importance of and strategies for physical conditioning, good nutrition and healthy eating habits for peace officers.(1.8.10.)
  55. explain what constitutes an arrest and the differences between a contact, a detention and an arrest.(2.4.1.)
  56. state the requirements of the Fourth Amendment on the law of arrest.(2.4.2.)
  57. discuss protocols and terms associated with arrest including “reasonable suspicion” and “probable cause”.(2.4.3.)
  58. describe the stop and frisk standard as found in “Terry vs. Ohio” and subsequent cases.(2.4.4.)
  59. explain the legal requirements of, the exceptions to, and the need for an arrest warrant and how one is obtained.(2.4.5.)
  60. describe when and how a citizen can make an arrest.(2.4.6.)
  61. explain the Supreme Court decision Miranda vs. Arizona and the four components of the Miranda warning.(2.4.7.)
  62. explain the difference between custodial and noncustodial interview or interrogation.(2.6.4.)
  63. explain Minnesota statutes and relevant case law related to the application force by peace officers.(2.8.1.)
  64. explain the following terms: objectively reasonable, totality of circumstances, situational factors, pre-assaultive indicators, and, escalation and de-escalation as related to peace officer use of force.(2.8.2.)
  65. discuss the term reasonable as it related to use of force.(2.8.3.)
  66. state how department policies regarding use of force including deadly force may and may not vary. (2.8.4.)
  67. given scenarios, recognize when force is or is not authorized and give and defend reasonable choices for the application of various types of force depending on the circumstances of the scenario. (2.8.5.)
  68. give Supreme Court case examples authorizing the use of deadly force.(2.8.6.)
  69. analyze a variety of situations where force may or may not be authorized and demonstrate an understanding of the concept of reasonable use of force.(2.8.7.)
  70. explain the Minnesota Statute that requires officers be trained in the use of those weapons and equipment the officer is issued or authorized to carry (Minn. Stat. 626.8452).(2.8.8.)
  71. explain when force may be used to make an arrest.(2.8.9.)
  72. discuss liabilities associated with the application of force by peace officers.(2.8.10.)
  73. discuss peace officer rights, obligations and liabilities under state and federal law including requirements placed on law enforcement agencies to defend and indemnify peace officers for good faith action in the course and scope of employment.(2.9.1.)
  74. explain the role of internal affairs.(2.9.2.)
  75. explain the concept of racially based profiling (Minn. Stat. 262.8471) and other profiling that is based on false assumptions about groups of people and discuss:
    1.  the impact of the Whren v. United States decision
    2. the importance of impartial policing,
    3. the difference between the terms pretextual stop and racial profiling and the problems associated with racial profiling by law enforcement, 
    4. how racial profiling impacts law enforcement credibility and community trust,
    5. how to handle the perception of unfair or biased treatment of members of the public by law enforcement, and
    6.  the importance of an officer’s ability to articulate valid reasons for vehicle stops.
  76. define and explain the impact of hate crimes including:
    1. the motivations behind hate crimes,
    2. the impact of hate crimes on victims and on communities,
    3. the special needs of hate crime victims, and
    4.  crime characteristics which may indicate a crime was motivated by the victim’s race, national origin, sex, age, disability, or sexual orientation (Minn. Stat. 626.8451, Subd. 1).
  77. explain special reporting requirements related to bias motivated/hate crimes as required by Minn. Stat.626.5531. (Officers must report to their agencies, agencies to the BCA.)(2.12.3.)
  78. explain the Data Practices Act as it pertains to the gathering and release of information by law enforcement.(2.22.1.)
  79. discuss balancing the public’s right to know with public safety needs and privacy issues with regard to data accessed by peace officers including: what and when information can be shared with the media or the public and by whom, and the repercussions of violating data practices.(2.22.2.)
  80. discuss the need for protection of data related to on-going investigations, crime victims, and juveniles.(2.22.3.)
  81. discuss ethical and responsible use of computers and databases by peace officers and the ramifications of misuse or unethical release of data.(2.22.4.)
  82. describe intelligence-led policing and how it differs from response- and investigation-led policing and from community policing.(2.24.1.)
  83. explain how data-driven, intelligence-led policing can influence the duties of peace officers even at the entry level. (2.24.2)

Minnesota Transfer Curriculum (MnTC): Goals and Competencies
Competency Goals (MnTC Goals 1-6)
Ethical and Civic Responsibility
Theme Goals (MnTC Goals 7-10)

Courses and Registration

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